4 main causes of female infertility, how many factors have you got?

  The most basic thing for women to get pregnant is to get rid of bad habits in their lives. In addition to this, both men and women have normal reproductive cells—normal sperm and eggs. Sperm and egg can meet in the fallopian tube, combine to become a fertilized egg, and the fertilized egg can reach the uterine cavity smoothly. Finally, the fertilized egg implants, and a well-developed endometrium and intrauterine environment can lead to a good pregnancy.

  

  So, what are the prerequisites for female fertility?

  

  • With perfect cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, pituitary, ovarian gonadal system.
  • 具备平衡协调的丘脑下部促性腺激素释放激素、垂体促性腺激素、卵巢分泌的雌激素和孕激素。
  • 产生并排出正常的卵子。
  • 卵子和精子能正常地在输卵管里相遇并形成受精卵。
  • 具有正常的受精卵输送通道,使受精卵顺利到达宫腔。
  • 具有正常的受精卵着床、发育的子宫内膜及良好的宫内环境。

 

  哪些原因会导致女性不孕?

  ● 影响卵子产生的因素

  ① 全身性疾病:慢性消耗性疾患、重度营养不良、过度肥胖、精神过度紧张等影响卵巢功能,导致排卵障碍。

  ② 内分泌系统功能失调:甲状腺功能亢进或低下、肾上腺皮质功能失调等影响卵巢功能,影响排卵而致不孕。

  ③ 性腺系统功能失调:丘脑下部– 垂体-性腺轴功能失调,影响卵巢正常排卵而造成不孕。

  ④ 卵巢疾患:先天性双侧卵巢发育不全或缺如,炎症、肿瘤、手术或放射线损害卵巢组织,多囊卵巢综合症等,排卵功能障碍,而致不孕。

  ● 影响卵子、精子及受精卵的因素

  ① 阴道畸形:先天性无阴道、处女膜闭锁、处女膜环过于坚韧、狭窄、阴道横隔影响性生活正常进行。

  ② 子宫颈因素:宫颈息肉、宫颈肌瘤、带蒂的子宫粘膜下肌瘤阻塞子宫颈管,阻碍精子通过;宫颈管炎症,使宫颈粘液,影响精子穿过;宫颈管的粘连使精子不能进入。

  ③ 宫腔粘连,阻碍精子经此进入输卵管。

  ④ 输卵管因素

  a、输卵管病变:先天性输卵管发育不良,输卵管炎症使卵管内膜纤毛被破坏及炎症引起的阻塞,和输卵管结核等。

  b、盆腔疾患造成输卵管不通:如卵巢肿瘤,子宫内膜异位症,子宫肌瘤等压迫输卵管,或盆腔的炎症,使输卵管伞端及卵巢粘连而影响卵子的被摄取。

  ● 影响受精卵着床的因素

  ① 卵巢黄体功能不全:孕酮分泌不足,使子宫内膜处于分泌不良状态,影响受精卵的着床和发育。

  ② 子宫因素:诸如子宫发育不良,子宫粘膜下肌瘤,多发性子宫内膜息肉,宫腔粘连,子宫内膜发育不良或损伤,子宫内膜结核等,受精卵到达宫腔后,缺少着床发育的基本条件,而导致不孕。

  ● 免疫因素

  About one-fifth of infertility patients are caused by autoimmunity or alloimmunity of reproductive system antigens. Therefore, it is also called immune infertility.

  ① Alloimmunity: that is, sperm and semen are antigenic substances. After being absorbed by the vagina and endometrial epithelium, they pass through the immune response system to produce antibody substances, which affect the combination of sperm and egg, or the implantation of fertilized eggs, resulting in infertility. .

  ② Autoimmunity: It was found that there are specific zona pellucida autoantibodies in the serum of infertile women. And its serum content can be determined by radioimmunoassay. This autoantibody, which reacts to the zona pellucida, prevents sperm from attaching to and penetrating the egg and causing infertility.

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