U.S. Presidential Succession Order, in special cases, a list of Presidential Succession order list

  The change of the supreme powers of the state, such as the executive, legislative and judicial, is directly related to the stability of the political situation and has an important impact on social development and people's lives. Therefore, in a country ruled by law, it must be regulated through legislation. If regulations do not keep up with changing times, or if loopholes are found, they must be revised in a timely manner.

  U.S. Presidential Succession Order, in special cases, a list of Presidential Suc

  The president is the top executive head of the United States and needs to be replaced only in exceptional circumstances between elections. According to the law, in special circumstances, the order of succession of the President is:

  1. Vice President and President of the Senate

  2. Speaker of the House of Representatives

  3. President pro tempore of the Senate

  4. Secretary of State

  5. Minister of Finance

  6. Secretary of Defense

  7. Attorney General

  8. Minister of Land and Resources

  9. Minister of Agriculture

  10. Minister of Commerce

  11. Minister of Labour

  12. Secretary of Health and Human Services

  13. Minister of Housing and Development

  14. Minister of Transport

  15. Minister of Energy

  16. Minister of Education

  17. Secretary of Veterans Affairs

  18. Secretary of Homeland Security

  Except for the top three, in principle, the ranking is based on the order established by each ministry. This sequence is based on the enactment of the Presidential Succession Act of 1947. At present, Gary Locke has been sworn in to take over as ambassador to China, and the position of Minister of Commerce that he previously held is temporarily vacant, so in fact, the succession order below the Minister of Commerce has advanced one place. The ranking on the above list will not be restored until the new Commerce Secretary confirms it. For the same reason, if any person in this sequence does not meet the constitutional conditions for the presidency (born in the United States, over the age of 35, and lived in the United States for at least 14 years), it will be skipped, and the ranking of the people below will automatically advance.

  The Presidential Succession Act of 1947 is a continuation of the U.S. Constitution and related laws that follow.

  The U.S. Constitution itself prescribes presidential succession very simply, saying: "When the President is removed from office, or dies, resigns, or is unable to discharge his powers and duties, such powers and duties shall pass to the Vice President . . . until he resumes performance. powers and duties, or until a president is elected.” At that time, the biggest controversy over this clause was whether the vice president would become the president if he succeeded him, or if he just acted as the president, that is, the so-called “acting president”. In fact, this problem first appeared in 1841, when President Harrison died and Vice President Taylor took over. Although his political opponents called him the acting president, Taylor insisted that because he fulfilled his oath of office, he was a real president.

  The Constitution only provides for the vice president to perform his functions in the absence of the president, so the question arises: what if both the president and the vice president are absent at the same time? The second Congress, held in 1792, passed a bill on March 1 to make up for the shortcomings of the presidential election method in the Constitution, and at the same time added two measures to deal with the absence of both the president and the vice president: the president pro tempore of the Senate would act as the president authority. If there is no Senate president pro tempore either, it's the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

  When this happens, the Act provides for the holding of a special presidential election that year, on the then-statutory Election Day, the first Wednesday in December. It also stipulates that states must be notified of the matter 34 days before Election Day, and the news must be published in at least one newspaper in each state. If this happens less than 34 days before the election day of the current year, and the vacant President and Vice President's term exceeds March 3 of the following year, the special election will be postponed to December of the following year. Note that the Act designates the Secretary of State as the official to issue special election notices, showing the Secretary's important role in the Administration.

  The presidential succession formula enacted in 1792 has never been implemented. However, there have been many times in history that after the president was replaced by the vice president, the position of the vice president was vacant. If the president who succeeded in those gaps also has problems, it is possible to use this legal provision, two of which are very mysterious. Once again President Taylor. In the third year after succeeding Harrison as president, the Navy showed the president the newly built three-masted ship, the Princeton, and exercised on the Potomac River. Taylor's prospective husband, Taylor himself narrowly escaped. Another was Lincoln's assassination successor, Andrew Johnson, who was impeached by the House of Representatives (for the first time in American history), but the Senate voted to remove him from the presidency 35 to 19, one vote short of two-thirds Mostly, Johnson was able to finish his term of less than four years.

  The Presidential Succession Act of 1792 was based in part on the fact that members of the Senate and House of Representatives, like the President, were elected on a popular basis. But it was later discovered that the Secretary of State actually had far more prestige among the people than Congressional leaders. By the late 19th century, a total of six former secretaries of state in the United States had successfully run for president, and only one congressional leader who was entitled to succeed was elected president later. This led to the Presidential Succession Act of 1886.

  The Presidential Succession Act of 1886 disqualified the congressional leader from the succession, ceded it to a member of the cabinet, and stipulated that the department was established in the order in which it was established, naturally the secretary of state came first.

  The Presidential Succession Act of 1947, now in effect, was enacted by Truman after the death of Roosevelt and Truman took over. It reinstated the 1792 rule that named the president pro tempore of the Senate and the speaker of the House of Representatives as presidential successors, but removed them one by one. At the same time, the 1886 Presidential Succession Act was adopted to include cabinet members in the succession sequence, with the only exception being that the newly established Minister of Defense moved up to sixth place. The importance of the position of the Minister of Defense is of course the main reason, and there are also technically plausible reasons: the Ministry of Defense was formed by the merger of the Ministry of War and the Ministry of the Navy after World War II. Although the Ministry of War was established and cancelled many times, the earliest Ministry of War in history was in finance. established after the Ministry.

  After 9/11, the United States created the Department of Homeland Security. Many believe the department's status is so important that Congress has considered moving its secretary to the post of attorney general in the presidential succession line, but the bill has not been brought to Congress for a vote.

  The 25th Amendment to the Constitution, which went into effect in 1967, finally resolved the debate at the time of Taylor's succession over whether the vice president was the actual president or the acting president: if the president dies or resigns, the vice president succeeds; For some reason, the vice president is the acting president. Once the president is able to resume work, the vice president has to give up his seat. The amendments also make detailed provisions on the implementation procedures of the acting president and the handling of disputes in the event of a dispute. At the same time, the amendment also makes up for the defect that the Constitution and the Presidential Succession Law do not deal with how to deal with the vacancy of the vice president. vice-president.

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